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Functional and Structural Characterization of ClC-1 and Nav1.4 Channels Resulting from CLCN1 and SCN4A Mutations Identified alone and Coexisting in Myotonic Patients.

O, Brenes; R, Barbieri; M, Vásquez; R, Vindas; J, Roig; A, Romero; d, Valle G.; L, Bermúdez; S, Bertelli; M, Pusch; F, Morales
Non-dystrophic myotonias have been linked to loss-of-function mutations in the ClC-1 chloride channel or gain-of-function mutations in the Nav1.4 sodium channel. Here, we describe a family with members diagnosed with Thomsen’s disease. One novel mutation (p.W322*) in CLCN1 and one undescribed mutation (p.R1463H) in SCN4A are segregating in this family. The CLCN1-p.W322* was also found in an unrelated family, in compound heterozygosity with the known CLCN1-p.G355R mutation. One reported mutation, SCN4A-p.T1313M, was found in a third family. Both CLCN1 mutations exhibited loss-of-function: CLCN1-p.W322* probably leads to a non-viable truncated protein; for CLCN1-p.G355R, we predict structural damage, triggering important steric clashes. The SCN4A-p.R1463H produced a positive shift in the steady-state inactivation increasing window currents and a faster recovery from inactivation. These gain-of-function effects are probably due to a disruption of interaction R1463-D1356, which destabilizes the voltage sensor domain (VSD) IV and increases the flexibility of the S4-S5 linker. Finally, modelling suggested that the p.T1313M induces a strong decrease in protein flexibility on the III-IV linker. This study demonstrates that CLCN1-p.W322* and SCN4A-p.R1463H mutations can act alone or in combination as inducers of myotonia. Their co-segregation highlights the necessity for carrying out deep genetic analysis to provide accurate genetic counseling and management of patients.
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Palabras clave:
myotonia; chloride channel; sodium channel; Xenopus oocytes; electrophysiology; structure analysis
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